Saturday, May 23, 2020
The nursing profession has gone through numerous transformations throughout the years; dating back to Florence Nightingale. She began the movement of professionalism. This movement marked a time when nurses were eager to get an education and had the opportunity to acquire it through a nursing program (Alligood, 2010). From this movement on, nursing has continued to change at a very rapid pace. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) report describes patient needs and environment being much more complex in the 21st century versus the 20th century; not to mention all of the technological advances (Institute of Medicine, 2010). These factors make it vital for both current and future nurses to obtain an even higher education. The governmentÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦It is essential for nurses to live up to their full potential so they can deliver the best patient outcomes and be successful in the continually changing healthcare system (Institute of Medicine, 2010). To what extent does the Af fordable Care Act affect the nursing education system and ultimately nurses being able to live up to their full potential in the 21st century? In order to advance the education system continued education is important to keep up with current nursing issues and protocols to keep patients safe. Nurses should never stop learning. Nurses who do not have a Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) are encouraged to do so in order to advance their practice. The goal is to transform nursing education from 50% of nurses with a BSN to 8o% by 2020 and the number of nurses with a Doctorate to double by 2020 (Institute of Medicine, 2010). The number of nurses with a BSN or currently working towards a BSN has in fact increased thanks to added resources to make these goals more attainable. However, increasing the number of nurses with a BSN to 80% by 2020 is a little overzealous due to the overwhelming demands and time-frame; only 5 years away. There has been a significant rise of insured Americans who will be needing care because of the ACA. In addition, nearly 40% of working registered nurses (RN s) were nearing retirement in 2010 and if this trend continues nursing shortages could be around 400,000 by 2020 (National Advisory Council on
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
There are multiple innovative approaches and measures that can be taken to drastically reduce DALYs and mortalities. Reducing this trash problem can be managed and while it will be a long term approach that requires the efforts of governments, nonprofits, and communities, it can eventually be eliminated in Kenya and other parts of the world facing the same issue. First, traditional methods can prove to be effective in maximizing solid waste management. Opening up more dumpsters across cities can allow people to actually have a place to get rid of their trash. If governments were to enforce laws and establish punishments for littering, people might think twice before illegally getting rid of waste. The government could also hire more sanitation service men/women to collect trash from rural and urban parts of their cities. Secondly, managing the waste by transforming it into a commercial enterprise can prove to be very beneficial to a country and itsÃ¢â¬â¢ economy. The approach isnÃ¢â¬â¢t new and itÃ¢â¬â¢s proven to be successful by the Closed Loop Fund. The Closed Loop Fund, a social impact fund that invests money to increase the recycling of products and packaging. The CLF builds recycling plants in cities and transforms the waste that would otherwise be burned, to be reused and resold to companies for packaging and manufacturing purpos es. The CLF generates funding from various investors who are able to earn a return once CLF sells the now usable waste to companies such as Coca-Cola, 3M,Show MoreRelatedAquaponics as an Alternative to Conventional Agriculture Essay1997 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesuses dramatically less water, land, and synthetic chemical inputs while maintaining or even improving crop yield. This research will introduce the agricultural system of aquaponics and demonstrate how it is an improvement over our conventional system. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The Hershey Company 1. History and Overview The first HersheyÃ¢â¬â¢s Chocolate Bar was produced in 1900, six years after the firm that would become The Hershey Company (Ã¢â¬Å"HersheyÃ¢â¬ ) was founded by candy-manufacturer Milton S. Hershey. We will write a custom essay sample on Hershey Marketing or any similar topic only for you Order Now 2. Strategic Planning, Corporate Vision Until late last year when Hershey announced plans to revamp how it organizes its business with two new strategic business unitsÃ¢â¬âone for chocolate and the other for sugar confectioneryÃ¢â¬âthe companyÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing organization was comprised of five primary product groups and three divisions: Hershey North America, Hershey International and the Global Marketing Group. According to their 2009 Annual Financial Report, this organization structure allowed Hershey to capitalize on unique customer and consumer trends, leverage marketing and sales leadership in the US and Canada, and focus on key growth areas in global markets (Annual Report p. 2). As indicated by a November 2nd, 2010 press release, the new structure is meant to leverage competencies for global growth, strengthen regional focus with additional resources, and augment confectionery consumer insights and innovation capabilities. (http://www. hehersheycompany. com/newsroom/news-release-1490640. aspx) In 2009, Hershey put forth their first Corporate Social Responsibility Report. In the opening paragraphs of this report they call Corporate Social Responsibility integral to their mission of Ã¢â¬Å"Bringing sweet moments of Hershey happiness to the world every day. Ã¢â¬ Kotler and Keller (27) contend that not only should a mission statement be short, memorable, meaningful, and enduring, it sh ould provide employees with a shared sense of purpose, direction, and opportunity. Hershey is attuned to these needs. The report elaborates, Ã¢â¬Å"Our employees are committed to our missionÃ¢â¬ ¦In all of our efforts, we are guided by our values, which have enabled our company to succeed over the long term. Ã¢â¬ HersheyÃ¢â¬â¢s internal marketing strategy is driven by their stated corporate valuesÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬Å"One Hershey: A global and diverse team, operating with integrity, working together, determined to make a difference (Hershey Our Values). Kotler and Keller (29) identify the importance of utilizing three specific nternal groups toward the goal of successful strategy making: employees with youthful perspectives; employees far removed from company headquarters; and employees new to the industry. In a concerted effort to encourage ideas from the younger generation, Hershey has implemented an innovative approach by putting in place an Ramp;D mentoring program where new Millennial employees are paired with experienced Boomers. Hershey recognizes that Millen nials have categorically received greater support from their schools and families and expect it from their employers as well. Hershey also has a program called Quality Through Excellence that engages Ã¢â¬Å"the most committed and energetic thought leaders from all over the company and from different functional areas. Ã¢â¬ Among other things, these employees are charged with the duty of provided feedback to the company about whatÃ¢â¬â¢s going well and what needs to be changed. Further, they have redesigned their performance management system to reward employees for their contributions to the success of the company. Attracting, Developing and Retaining Talent p11) A superior value chain incorporates a high level of product quality, service, and speed (Kotler and Keller 23). The conjunction of these components allows marketers to achieve profitable growth by, among other things, building loyalty and capturing customer lifetime value. Hershey has an ongoing commitment to deal fairly and ethically with all parties in its global value chain which extends from the farmers who supply raw materials for ingredie nts to consumers all over the world. They are dedicated to conserving energy and reducing emissions throughout their value chain, beginning with a company-wide initiative in 2007 to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in both their facilities and their transport operations. (CSR Report 26) 3. Strategic Planning-Business Vision Hershey relies on strong Ramp;D efforts to continue making progress in the areas of cost reduction, quality assurance, and process improvement. Their research and development initiatives are centered on the creation/ improvement of new/existing manufacturing methods. Recent Ramp;D activities have enabled Hershey to offer customized products which have turned out to be a major growth driver (SWOT 2). HersheyÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to capitalize on its internal strength in manufacturing continues to benefit the company. Another strength the company boasts is a robust and diverse product portfolio. However, though the company does not demonstrate an overdependence on a particular product segment, it does face the threat of dependence on a single customer. Hershey sells its products to various wholesale distributors, department stores and grocery stores, however, in 2009 more than a quarter of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s net sales were derived from sales to McLane Company, Inc. (SWOT 4). While Hershey has huge opportunities to expand in the emerging markets, specifically in India and China where disposable income continues to steadily rise, the company also faces the threat of a growing counterfeit goods market. This threat not only affects sales, it affects the image of established brands (SWOT 4). Underperformance of counterfeit products will have a significant negative impact on consumer confidence. In addition to the added competition the counterfeit market brings, Hershey will also continue to see new players enter the market. This will create a still greater challenge to keep costs down in order to stay competitive. When the company began more than one hundred years ago, it was granted immediate success with its low-cost, high quality milk chocolate. Though one of Milton HersheyÃ¢â¬â¢s founding principles that has persisted over the years is to Ã¢â¬Å"make and sell a high-quality product at a fair priceÃ¢â¬ (CSR Report 7), another threat Hershey contends with is changing consumer preference. The company is experiencing changing consumer trends toward premium and trade-up product segments (SWOT 4). Ã¢â¬ In order to adapt to the changing marketplace, Hershey will have to continue to constantly develop, produce and market new products. 4. Marketing Strategies In 1963 Hershey acquired H. B. Ã¢â¬Å"HarryÃ¢â¬ ReeseÃ¢â¬â¢s Candy Company which had been making chocolate-c overed peanut butter cups since 1928. In the early 1980s Hollywood producer Steven Spielberg met with Hershey executive Jack Dowd. The two struck a deal and the newly developed ReesesÃ¢â¬â¢s Pieces appeared in the legendary box office hit, E. T. : The Extraterrestrial. Fortunately for Hershey, the candy shared in the success. (thehersheycompany. com) Early this year in Las Vegas, NV, at the 2011 Consumer Electronics Show, Hershey unveiled ReeseÃ¢â¬â¢s MinisÃ¢â¬âsmaller unwrapped versions of ReeseÃ¢â¬â¢s Peanut Butter Cups. According to Anna Lingeris, spokesperson for ReeseÃ¢â¬â¢s, Ã¢â¬Å"Techies at CES seek out cool innovations like min-tuners, mini-cams, nano-mice, mini-keyboards, and gotta-have gadgets so small you could fit a fistful in our pocket, so who says the next, big mini innovation canÃ¢â¬â¢t come from a candy company? (Business Wire 1/6/2011)Ã¢â¬ It remains to be seen whether this latest ReeseÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing blitz is a success, however, the videos which spoof the Ã¢â¬Å"unboxingÃ¢â¬ trend in the tech world have had widespread play on YouTube and across a number of social networ ks (Business Wire 1/6/2011). This product falls in the popular hand-to-mouth category that, according to a recent Hershey presentation, presently makes up 16% of chocolate sales (adage. com 10/21/10). Erin Swanson, a Morningstar analyst, points out that this product is lower risk because it is an extension of an existing brand instead of an entirely new one. Hershey has tried its luck with some recent similar brand extensions. Modeled after ReeseÃ¢â¬â¢s Pieces, early last year Hershey launched Almond Joy Pieces, York Pieces and HersheyÃ¢â¬â¢s Special Dark Pieces. According to a Hershey spokeswoman, Jody Cook, they launched these new products in hopes they would Ã¢â¬Å"entice consumers who eat the traditional form in a private setting to share a bag of Pieces in a social setting (nytimes. om 2/17/10)Ã¢â¬ . In 2005 the company introduced cookies by each of these three brands which were all discontinued a few years later. Hershey promoted the new product launch with a Ã¢â¬Å"wrapper reward programÃ¢â¬ which encouraged consumers to be one of the first 25,000 to mail in a wrapper from the full-size version of one of these candies. In turn, participants received a coupon for a free bag of the smaller product. Hershey relies on promotional programs like this one as a marketing strategy to stimulate sales of certain products at various times throughout the year (2009 Annual Report p 5). We have a variety of promotional programs for our customers as well as advertising and promotional programsfor consumers of our products. We use our promotional programs to stimulate sales of certain products at various times throughout the year. Our sales are typically higher during the third and fourth quarters of the year, representing seasonal and holiday-related sales patterns. In late 2010 Hershey revealed plans to launch TV ads for PayDay and HersheyÃ¢â¬â¢s SyrupÃ¢â¬âtwo products that havenÃ¢â¬â¢t been promoted on television for a decadeÃ¢â¬âalongside the new campaign for ReeseÃ¢â¬â¢s Minis and HersheyÃ¢â¬â¢s Drops. According to CEO David West, this decision was made in response to the positive results from a pledge in 2008 to increase ad spending by 20% for two years. Ã¢â¬Å"Sales analysis consists of measuring and evaluating actual sales in relation to goals (Kotler and Keller 34). For the most part, the spending on these recent brands has exceeded expectations. Effective sales analysis highlighted the strong results Hershey won from their amped up efforts at promoting core brands like Kisses and ReeseÃ¢â¬â¢s and caused them to later extend this effort to Twizzlers and Kit Kat. How to cite Hershey Marketing, Papers
Sunday, May 3, 2020
Question: Write a report on Grassgro. Answer: Introduction The analysis done by Meat Livestock Australia along with various other reputed institutions and associated data analysis done by the GrassGro information processing system was performed to determine the profitability of sheep meat and wool organisations, and how certain vital variables like date of lambing, date of shearing, stocking rates and various other production factors affect the health, output and mortality of the livestock. A number of significant observations were obtained through this detailed analysis performed across four locations in south-eastern Australia, Mortlake, Rutherglen, Naracoorte and Cowra. Fourteen sheep enterprises were monitored and the simulations of the analysis were run over a time period of thirty seven years. Wool production of Australia has declined over the years as a result of a significant drop in sheep numbers due to drought conditions, though lamb numbers have increased in recent times. Wool is one of the most important export commodities of the country and as such concerns have been raised regarding this particular crisis. Main Body When is the right time to lamb? A: It was observed that good breed Merino ewes used in dual purpose enterprises were the most profitable strain. Replacement ewes were more profitable than ewes produced by local breeding. The improvement and refinement of the lambing and stocking rates can vastly increase the profit margins. Stocking rate increase can enhance the economic benefit of lamb time change. Appropriate guidelines for the perfect lambing time for each of the involved enterprises were laid down by evaluating the reports. Stocking rates had the biggest impact on an enterprises gross profit margin. Certain other factors were also investigated like the body frame size of a ewe, percentage of weaning, the weight of a lamb carcass and other variables relating to the timing of sale of a carcass. One of the most vital inductions obtained was the profitable impact of lambing in late winter or early spring. According to the patterns observed in the statistical data derived from the GrassGro analysis, it has been observed that for Merino ewes, the conceptions rates are extremely high for mating which were done in early half of a year, especially in the months from January to May. The percentage rates of successful conception were 110 percent for a mating date first January, 120 percent for first February, 130 percent for first March, 130 percent for first April and 120 percent for first May. This increase in the rate of successful conception show that for Merino breeds, the best time of lambing is during early spring during the months of August and September. Higher percentage of single lambs were produced if breeding is done during this time period, and there is about 80 to 70 percentage probability of a single offspring being born , and 20 to 30 percentage of twin lambs being born. The lambs were born during the months of August and September, when the breeding were done during the ear ly spring season. For crossbred species, the successful conception rates were very high during the same months when the Merino breed mated. The sheep that mated during first November had a 105 percentage of successful conception, those that mated in first December had 120 percent success rate, for first January the rate was 135 percent, for first February the rate observed was 148 percent, for first march the arte shot up to 156 percent and it remained the same for the mating date of first April and went down to 145 percent for a mating date of first May. A particular fact was observed, that in case of crossbred species, the offspring produced had a higher probability of being twins, rather than born single. 40 to 45 percent chance of the lamb being born single and about 50 to 58 percent chance of the lamb being born twins. Thus, late winter and early spring in the months of July, August and September is the best breeding and lambing time for crossbred species. When is the right shearing date? A: Data obtained from the long term gross profit margin tables show that for the primary or main flock ,a summer shearing date during the months of October December that flows a lambing date of November is the most profitable time to shear, as no detrimental health effects have been seen during this period. A timeline of November lambing and December shearing shows a net gross profit margin of 228 dollars per hectare October shearing with November lambing yields a profit of around 229 dollars per hectare. However, October shearing with December Lambing produced a larger gain of 235 dollars per hectare. Values for the younger stock show November lambing with December shearing to be the most profitable. Now taking into account all the necessary expenses like new livestock purchasing feeds and medicines, replacements and animal husbandry costs, shearing and pasturing costs, it is seen that October or December Shearing with November or December lambing yields the most profitable gross margins. What is the effect of timing of lambing and date of shearing on mortality rate of lambs? A: Amongst all the different varieties, numbers of the Merino breed of sheep has declined the fastest. Currently, the number of ewes in the Merino population of the country is much more than rams. Recent trends have resulted in an increase in lamb production as it is now considered to be the main source of revenue for farmers and breeders. Early pregnancy shearing of ewe has been shown to result in the birth of twin lambs of increased birth weight. This causes a reduction in the mortality rates of twin born lambs. With an increase in lamb birth weight, there was a noticeable decrease in the mortality rate by 3 percent. Conclusion The concerned case studies and reports provide data and observable patterns regarding the effect stocking rates have on the profits and volatility of sheep breeding enterprises. The detailed analysis of all the financial data-bases have highlighted a strong linear relationship that is existent between the values of kg meat/ha or kg wool/ha with the gross margin or profit of an enterprise and sheep stocking rate , shearing and lambing timings have been identified as the primary driver of these factors. References "1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2003". 2016.Abs.Gov.Au. "Lambing At The Right Time - The First Step To Increasing Sheep Profits". 2016.Farmpoint.Tas.Gov.Au. "Sheep - Lamb Survival: Coping With Adverse Spring Weather - Clutha Vets". 2016.Cluthavets.Co.Nz. "Sheep 201: Weaning Lambs". 2016.Sheep101.Info. "Sheep Shearing Why And When". 2016. Ranching-With-Sheep.Com. MORRIS, KENYON, BURNHAM, and McCUTCHEON. 1999. "The Influence Of Pre-Lamb Shearing On Lamb Birthweight And Survival".Proceedings Of The New Zealand Grassland Association.  "1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2003". 2016. Abs.Gov.Au.  "Lambing At The Right Time - The First Step To Increasing Sheep Profits". 2016. Farmpoint.Tas.Gov.Au.  "Sheep 201: Weaning Lambs". 2016. Sheep101.Info.  "Sheep Shearing Why And When". 2016. Ranching-With-Sheep.Com.  MORRIS, KENYON, BURNHAM, and McCUTCHEON. 1999. "The Influence Of Pre-Lamb Shearing On Lamb Birthweight And Survival". Proceedings Of The New Zealand Grassland Association.  "Sheep - Lamb Survival: Coping With Adverse Spring Weather - Clutha Vets". 2016. Cluthavets.Co.Nz.
Wednesday, March 25, 2020
Adventures of Huck Finn title = Adventures of Huck Finn American Heritage Pd 5 & 6 The Adventures of Huckelberry Finn Mark Twain's The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is a novel about a young boy's coming of age in the Missouri of the mid-1800's. The main character, Huckleberry Finn, spends much time in the novel floating down the Mississippi River on a raft with a runaway slave named Jim. Before he does so, however, Huck spends some time in the fictional town of St. Petersburg where a number of people attempt to influence him. Before the novel begins, Huck Finn has led a life of absolute freedom. His drunken and often missing father has never paid much attention to him; his mother is dead and so, when the novel begins, Huck is not used to following any rules. The book's opening finds Huck living with the Widow Douglas and her sister, Miss Watson. Both women are fairly old and are really somewhat incapable of raising a rebellious boy like Huck Finn. Nevertheless, they attempt to make Huck into what they believe will be a better boy. Specifically, they attempt, as Huck says, to "sivilize" him. This process includes making Huck go to school, teaching him various religious facts, and making him act in a way that the women find socially acceptable. Huck, who has never had to follow many rules in his life, finds the demands the women place upon him constraining and the life with them lonely. As a result, soon after he first moves in with them, he runs away. He soon comes back, but, even though he becomes somewhat comfortable with his new life as the months go by, Huck never really enjoys the life of manners, religion, and education that the Widow and her sister impose upon him. Huck believes he will find some freedom with Tom Sawyer. Tom is a boy of Huck's age who promises Huck and other boys of the town a life of adventure. Huck is eager to join Tom Sawyer's Gang because he feels that doing so will allow him to escape the somewhat boring life he leads with the Widow Douglas. Unfortunately, such an escape does not occur. Tom Sawyer promises much?robbing stages, murdering and ransoming people, kidnaping beautiful women?but none of this comes to pass. Huck finds out too late that Tom's adventures are imaginary: that raiding a caravan of "A-rabs" really means terrorizing young children on a Sunday school picnic, that stolen "joolry" is nothing more than turnips or rocks. Huck is disappointed that the adventures Tom promises are not real and so, along with the other members, he resigns from the gang. Another person who tries to get Huckleberry Finn to change is Pap, Huck's father. Pap is one of the most astonishing figures in all of American literature as he is completely antisocial and wishes to undo all of the civilizing effects that the Widow and Miss Watson have attempted to instill in Huck. Pap is a mess: he is unshaven; his hair is uncut and hangs like vines in front of his face; his skin, Huck says, is white like a fish's belly or like a tree toad's. Pap's savage appearance reflects his feelings as he demands that Huck quit school, stop reading, and avoid church. Huck is able to stay away from Pap for a while, but Pap kidnaps Huck three or four months after Huck starts to live with the Widow and takes him to a lonely cabin deep in the Missouri woods. Here, Huck enjoys, once again, the freedom that he had prior to the beginning of the book. He can smoke, "laze around," swear, and, in general, do what he wants to do. However, as he did with the Widow and with Tom, Huck begins to become dissatisfied with this life. Pap is "too handy with the hickory" and Huck soon realizes that he will have to escape from the cabin if he wishes to remain alive. As a result of his concern, Huck makes it appear as if he is killed in the cabin while Pap is away, and leaves to go to a remote island in the Mississippi River, Jackson's Island. It is after he leaves his father's cabin that Huck joins yet another important influence in his life: Miss Watson's slave, Jim. Prior to Huck's leaving, Jim has been a minor character in the novel?he has been shown being fooled by Tom Sawyer and telling Huck's fortune. Huck finds Jim on Jackson's Island because the slave has run away?he has overheard a conversation
Friday, March 6, 2020
Sea Anemone essays The sea anemone is a coelenterate. They are a member of order Actinaria. They are in class Anthozoa. And, they are in phylum Cnidara.It is an invertebrate. Anemone have no heart, veins,blood bones, no means of locomotion, it has one body opening, it is a hollow sac, and it has a nervous system. It has long tentacles . It has a hollow mouth. It resembles a flower because the tentacles create a ring around the mouth opening making it look like petals. They come in beautiful colors. Anemone are shaped like a cylinder. Anemone are jelly-like organisms. Sea anemones look like lumps of jelly after the tide comes in. They could grow up to five feet in diameter( or 1.5 meters). Anemones have thick,but slender bodies. They have hundreds of tentacles. Anemone are covered in cilia (really small hairs that are about 0.1 by two micrometers [0.000004 by 0.00008 of an inch]).Some sea anemone vary in size from a few millimeters. While others are usually 1.5 meters( about five feet) in diameter. At the end of the stalk, there is a smooth, muscular disk. The disk helps the anemone to move. Sea anemone live in a marine climate. Most of them float in the Pacific ocean. Other anemone live on rocks. All anemone live in tide pools. Most of them stay in one place. While others stay in shallow water and deeper waters. Some of them burrow. Anemones usually stay in one place. One way they move is they use their tentacles to propel themselves .But sometimes they somersault if they live in shallow water. They seldom move. They also live off the coast of any continent. Basically in warm areas. Warm areas such as off the coast of South America, Australia, Africa, Asia, and some parts of North America, the Caribbean, and Central America.They also live off the coast of Spain and , Mexico. The main climate of the places I named is the marine climate. The marine climate is a ...
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Reasons for the Apparent Rise of New Religious Movements - Assignment Example The phenomenon behind new religious movements (NRMs) is, arguably, not new, since NRM is concerned with a groups of religious bodies or movements that entail an isolated and particular set of attributes, that have been assigned to the fringes of the dominant religious culture and by elements within the secular culture, in context of a set of religious movements that exist in a relatively contested society as a whole. It has been observed that "[m]any religious movements were born and prospered, either as the development of well-known religious traditions or as the result of a syncretic approach to different religions. In many cases their doctrines and practices differed widely from those of the mainstream religions: moreover, the "closed" structure of some of these groups, the unconventional behavior of their members, and some tragic events in which they were involved gave rise to considerable social alarm" (Ferrari, 2006, p.2). Thus, the NRMs have in many cases appropriated the anti -systemic feelings in an efficient manner and have successfully channelized into themselves in order to achieve their (un)declared goals vis--vis legitimate social and political institutions. II. When Religion Returns to a Haunted New World Order Interestingly, NRMs are often identified as 'sect' in a number of European languages "("secure" in French, "settle" in Italian, "sea" in Spanish, "Sekte" in German)" (Ferrari, 2006, p.2). Mostly, such sects are formed by a "group of dissenters who separated from a larger religious group" and popularly indicated as a collection of a "narrow-minded and fanatical group of people" (ibid, p.2).